Biotechnology, Data Storage, AR/VR, Imprint Lithography, Glass Materials
Stains, or organic residue, are discolorations on the surface due to film residue or the cleaning process.
Residual or internal stress is caused by tension or index variation formed within glass during production. This can lead to striations, internal defects, and changes in the surface topography.
Particles on the surface of glass can be caused by many factors, usually during the cleaning or packaging phase. Lumina's systems are able to detect particles down to 150 nm on glass surfaces.
Inclusions are the result of contaminants incorporated within the glass during the melting phase.
These defects can be caused either during the manufacturing phase, cleaning phase, or due to rough handling of the glass. When layers are stacked, internal scratches may occur.